Presentation of the programme
Anti-Bullying Coordinator appointment
Training of FUSE Bullying
Teachers deliver the programme in their school classrooms
Completion Survey by students and teachers
Research Design and Phases Explained
The aim of this research is to test the efficacy of our 5 Step Intervention Programme. FUSE has designed a programme that combines a Whole School Approach (O Higgins: 2008) with a 5 Step Programme (Darley and Latane: 1970) whose goal is to educate students in how to respond to bullying and by which students, teachers and parents will have acquired the necessary skills to report bullying.
This programme is innovative, research-based, and has been enriched by the expertise and experience of the staff at the National Anti-Bullying Centre (ABC).
For this particular programme FUSE has ensured that both programmes and research includes all the feedback that teachers, parents\guardians, students have provided from previous FUSE and ABC research. Because the 5 Step Programme is an improved version of previous programmes, we need to test it: that is, we need to conduct research to validate its efficacy.
As such, the project and the research have the following research phases:
The first phase is participation from schools at primary and secondary level. Our school participation rate is high, but we always welcome all Irish schools to contact and participate in our programme and the research of our programme. If you want your school to participate, please contact us.
As of today, there are 42 DEIS schools linked to the DCU Access programme for Primary who have been contacted, while for Post-Primary FUSE we have a total of 730 secondary schools on our agenda.
Logically, the first step is to present the programme to school principals and to get the principal’s consent to include the programme in their curriculum. Once schools have registered their participation with the programme, an Anti-Bullying Coordinator will be nominated by the school. Anti-bullying Coordinator is the contact in the school, drives the programme, educates other teachers, sends out surveys, oversees policy, therefore, the role of the coordinators is crucial. We advocate to schools to select someone who is motivated, with an interest in bullying, concerned about bullying and its effects and who will in return receive training and other benefits that will reinforce their standing as the voice of anti-bullying in their school.
The training will cover the 5 step programme.
The model outlines five sequential steps or dimensions, which are described as follows:
1 Notice the event.
A victim or bystander should be able to perceive (become aware) an aggressive behaviour as bullying.
2 Interpret the event as an emergency that requires help.
A victim or bystander should be able to evaluate the extent to which a bullying behaviour is serious enough that it needs help. They have to learn how to respond, instead of react.
3 Accept responsibility for intervening.
A victim or bystander should take personal responsibility in not ignoring a bullying incident.
4 Know how to intervene or provide help.
A victim or bystander should be able to know what appropriate actions need to be taken against a bullying incident and how to tackle it.
5 Implement intervention decisions.
A victim or bystander should be able to take actions (e.g., asking for help or reporting) against a bullying incident.
For teachers training, we have designed two mechanisms. Both mechanisms run in parallel.
Mechanism one: FUSE will train an Anti-Bullying Coordinator from a school in the 5 step model programme. As such, the specific training that the Anti-Bullying School Coordinator will receive is a workshop (delivered in-person or online) that then can be delivered to their peers in school. FUSE will equip our Anti-bullying coordinators with the knowledge that they can confidently share their knowledge on bullying with their colleagues.
Mechanism two: FUSE will provide online training for all teachers of the 5 step model for them to deliver in their schools. Any question it might rise can be asked to FUSE or to their Anti-Bullying School Coordinator.
At the centre of the programme is the student. First and foremost, school teachers who have been trained will implement the programme in their classrooms. Because we have collected previous feedback, the methodology we have created is simple, enjoyable for students and contributes to schools productivity. FUSE will provide support and resources when needed. The programme culminates with a students project where students who have participated will come up with their own ideas of how to tackle bullying.
Additional training workshops will be provided around various topics.
Once the programme is implemented, FUSE staff will conduct an anonymous online survey to students and teachers that aims to measure the confidence in their ability to report bullying incidents after participating in the FUSE programme. By running this survey we will ensure that our programme is effective and that we are contributing to creating a culture of reporting bullying.
Online Survey for students.
The online survey is anonymous and the link to it will be first provided from FUSE to teachers. For FUSE, consent and ethical procedures are fundamental. As such, before students gain access to online surveys, our design includes a double parental\guardian consent that has three phases:
Phase 1) Plain Language Statement (where we describe the research) and Parental Consent form for parents to allow their child to participate. This is done in video and a statement format
Phase 2) FUSE data privacy notice for parents\guardians (where we inform about who we store the data)
Phase 3) Plain Language Statement and consent form for students
It is important to notice that in order to maintain participants anonymity, the link to the survey is first sent to the teachers, who will then send it to the parents, who will complete the survey with their children
Online Survey for teachers.
This survey is for teachers who have delivered the programme. FUSE will send the link to teachers once they finish the implementation of the programme.
And what is the online survey about?
Based on feedback requests to keep the survey short, we have created our own instrument. This instrument is simple, short and user friendly. It also aims to measure the confidence in the ability to report bullying after attending our programme. The technical details of our instrument are described in the following paragraphs:
The instrument measures individuals’ self-efficacy, which is defined as the “confidence in the ability to exert control over one’s own motivation, behaviour, and social environment” and it aims to assess the 5-step model that will be covered in FUSE workshops. The main question is to understand how
The FUSE programme has increased students parents and teachers confidence in their ability to
- Noticing bullying.
- Understanding the emergency of bullying.
- Taking personal responsibility to tackle the incident.
- Knowing what to do and how to appropriately respond.
- Reporting bullying.
The instrument is anonymous, no personal data is collected, and it is only 30 minutes long.
The analysis will take place at ABC FUSE offices in DCU, using secured online storage systems. The first step for the data analysis is the construct validation of the instrument that is developed for the FUSE programme. In order to accomplish it, both Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (EFA, CFA) will be performed.
After the construct validation, frequencies and rates of the reported answers will be calculated using descriptive statistics.
Finally, inferential statistics will be performed in order to test the hypothesis of our research, see the data of the sample and make generalizations about the population. More specifically, t-tests, ANOVAs, correlation and regression analysis will be performed. However, it should be noted that the nature of the data will reveal if other, more advanced, statistical techniques will be used, as well as if parametric or non-parametric tests will be used.
If the student feels that the programme has increased their confidence in their abilities to tackle bullying our programme will be therefore validated. Crucially, as a result, the programme will contribute to tackling bullying nationally and internationally.